Tuesday 21 June 2016

More Marvelous Melbourne Art Deco

There are many claimants to the title of city with most art deco buildings. Melbourne must surely be a contender not only in sheer numbers but also in terms of variety and quality. I recently made a fourth visit to this lovely city and  spent some time looking at more examples of the style with my friends Robin and Robyn of the Art Deco and Modernism Society Over the course of two days they very kindly took me to see many buildings in different parts of the city. I have previously written about Melbourne's art deco homes. This time I have selected five public buildings.

Sun Theatre, Yarraville
The Sun Theatre in Yarraville was built in 1938 and designed by architects Cowper, Murphy and Appleford. Originally the cinema had a single screen and could seat 1050 patrons.  It stands out due to the rooftop sunburst which gives the theatre its name. The yellow the sunburst contrasts beautifully with the white painted elements of the facade where there are also examples of the art deco rule of three. The clean brick work adds a further contrast. Extremely luxurious, the cinema featured a sweet shop (now a book store), a booking office and perhaps uniquely, a pram room where babies could be left and supervised. The parents were issued with a number on arrival and if their baby cried, the number was flashed on to the screen! 

The usual story of decline during the 1960's led to the cinema closing and being converted to a short-lived Greek theatre before standing derelict for two decades. The building was acquired by new owners in 1995 and the transformation into today's success story began. The current theatre can seat 700 people across eight screens each named after closed Melbourne cinemas. Patrons can sit on club chairs around a coffee table and enjoy lots of leg room.

The renaissance of the theatre has contributed significantly to the regeneration of what was until a few years ago, a rundown and shabby part of the city. Today there are several good quality cafes and restaurants in the surrounding streets, a handful of interesting local shops - including one described as a "lamb boutique" rather than a butcher (!), whilst there is also an art deco pub just around the corner. What more could you want?

Rivoli Cinema, Hawthorn East
We also visited the beautifully restored Rivoli Cinema on Camberwell Road in Hawthorn East. Completed in 1940 and designed by Taylor and Soilleaux the cinema could originally seat over 1,600 customers. The first screening was of French Without Tears starring Ray Milland.

Like the Sun Theatre, it is another extremely striking building with its beautiful long red brick facade and vertical stylised lettering on the central fin. The interior is equally attractive with terrazzo flooring in the lobby, original mirrors and decorative elements and a wonderfully dramatic double staircase leading customers up to the main screen. Its just a pity that the staircase is covered in a brash highly patterned carpet which covers up the original flooring.

As with many cinemas, the Rivoli went through some very lean years from the sixties onwards but at the end of the 1990's, was subject to both extensive restoration and extension, increasing the number of screens to eight. The  multi-million dollar works were completed in 2000 and although the modern part is obvious it is at least reasonably sympathetic to the original,  streamline moderne exterior.  The restoration was carried out with extensive advice from the Art Deco and Modernism Society and from Heritage Victoria who added it to the state heritage register in 2005.

Rivoli Cinema, Hawthorn East
Detail, main staircase, Rivoli Cinema, Hawthorn East
McRobertson Girls' High School, South Melbourne
As well as cinemas and theatres, Melbourne has a number of other art deco public buildings. The MacRobertson Girls' High School on Kings Way, South Melbourne was designed by architect Norman H. Seabrook of Seabrook and Fildes and was completed in 1934. The architect had recently returned from the UK where he had been influenced by developments in European architecture, particularly the work of Willem Marinus Dudok in the Netherlands. Seabrook and his wife cycled 2000 miles (yes, two thousand) through the Netherlands, Belgium and Germany to see the new architecture for themselves. No internet in the 1930s. The school's design has references to the work of another great Dutch architect, H. P. Berlage particularly the lovely cream brickwork, similar to that of the Gemeentmuseum in Den Haag (although the school preceded it by one year).

The facade consists of interlocking forms of differing heights clad in those smooth cream bricks. The vermillion steel framed windows surrounded by glazed blue bricks bring colour and depth whilst the many discrete design features such as the clock tower, flagpole, a canopy over the entrance and deco motifs on the fall pipe add further character. The internal areas were designed to separate different functions - science, art and home economics as well as to enable smooth movement between different parts of the building. 

Although much more built up today, the school's location was originally open scrubland. Seabrook incorporated the open space into his plans, making use of native plants. Unlike other schools of its time, the McRobertson is not surrounded by a high wall to prevent views in and out and the students would have been able to benefit from direct access to these open spaces.

McRobertson Girls' High School, South Melbourne
Detail, McRobertson Girls' High School, South Melbourne
Former Mercy Hospital, East Melbourne
Melbourne can also boast a number of art deco hospitals.  The former Mercy Hospital in Grey Street, East Melbourne (now St. Vincent's Private Hospital) was designed by Arthur Stephenson of Stephenson and Meldrum. He had also spent time in Europe where he had been particularly influenced by the work of Finnish genius Alvar Alto having visited his Paimo Sanatorium. Completed in 1934 and sympathetically extended in 1939, the hospital has a ship-like appearance, one of the hallmarks of the art deco buildings of this period. It is believed that Stephenson took a modernist approach to designing the hospital in order to reflect the institution's scientific and medical principles. I love the front facing balconies with their  lovely white curves topped by red railings. In the early days of the hospital the balconies were used as part of the treatment regime, exposing patients to fresh air and sunlight. The more cynical might also say that they were a good place to have a sly cigarette too!

Beautiful balconies, former Mercy Hospital, East Melbourne
Former United Kingdom Hotel, Clifton Hill
Former United Kingdom Hotel, stained glass windows
And finally, from health and hospitals to diet. The former United Kingdom Hotel at Queen's Parade, Clifton Hill is now home to a branch of the worldwide burger chain McDonalds. The hotel sits on a triangular site which might partly explain its classic deco ocean liner appearance.  The exterior also features terra-cotta tiles, elegant balconies and stained glass windows. I really like those stained glass windows - pity about the net curtains behind them though! Of course, the exterior now bears a huge letter M as part of the Mcdonald's branding but this is preferable to losing the building completely which I understand was at one time a possibility. The United Kingdom Hotel was completed in 1937 and was the work of James Wardrop who was also responsible for the Shrine of Remembrance in St. Kilda Road. I have to confess I took a peek inside the former hotel and was surprised to notice salads and macaroons on offer as well as the usual burgers and fries. I resisted it all and had a cheese toastie and a hot chocolate. My toastie was tasty and the chocolate fine.

You can read more about Melbourne's art deco heritage in the revised edition of Robin Grow's book Melbourne Art Deco - a real bargain and full of great photographs too.

You might also like Sydney Art Deco

You can see more photographs of Australian art deco architecture here.

Tuesday 14 June 2016

Art Deco on West London's Golden Mile

Most people have heard of Blackpool's famous Golden Mile of sand and occasional sunshine. Fewer will be familiar with what was once known as West London's Golden Mile, the Great West Road north of Brentford. Opened in 1925 to bypass the then traffic clogged Brentford High Street, the road was soon flanked by a number of factories - many in the art deco style. 
Former Curry's building
Several well-known British and international firms set up home on the Great West Road in the late 1920's and early 1930's - Smith's Potato Crisps, Gillette, Curry's, the Firestone Tyre Company, Jantzen Knitting Mills and Coty Cosmetics. The nearby Syon Lane Station opened in 1931 to bring in the many workers who found employment here whilst new housing was also built close by during the 1930's.

I recently visited this part of London and was able to photograph some of the remaining art deco structures. This is not the most convenient part of the city to visit on public transport as it is a twenty minutes walk from Osterley Tube Station on the Piccadilly Line and most of the walk is on the side of an extremely busy dual carriageway. However, it really is worth persevering or if like me you don't have a car, persuading a friend to drive you there! Incidentally, Osterley Station is also worth a look, built in 1934 to the designs of Stanley Heaps. Shame about those huge trees that make it hard to photograph though!
Former Gillette factory, tower and lamp post
Former Gillette factory, main entrance
Approaching from Osterley, you will see the former Gillette factory, at the junction with Syon Lane. The factory was completed in 1937 and was designed by the magnificently named Sir Banister Flight Fletcher. The main body stands two storeys high with a series of decorative metal aprons on the facade. The dramatic main entrance is encased in speed lines, the lower ones reflecting the steps below with the Gillette name overhead in stylised lettering. Even more dramatic is the tall, narrow tower that sits above the entrance with its four faced clock that at least originally was illuminated at night. A series of lamps stand on plinths along the main boundary wall guarded by sculptures of cherubs.

Gillette ceased using the factory in 2006, moving the work to Poland. The building was then sold to be the subject of a £150 million development that was to include a hotel and business park. Work commenced but then ceased due to the recession and the factory was again sold in 2013. When I visited there were a number of cars parked within the perimeter of the which seemed to indicate some use. However a high wire fence has been put up, covering most of the gates and I have been unable to find out what if anything is going on with this Grade ll listed building.

Architect Sir Banister was quite an accomplished chap. Knighted in 1919, he was elected President of the Royal Institute of British Architects in 1929 and Master of the Worshipful Company of Carpenters in 1936. He previously had a career in the law, having qualified as a barrister in 1908 and worked, somewhat appropriately, on cases involving property matters. He also published a major work on architecture and an annual prize is given in his name for the best new book on the subject.
Former Coty Cosmetics factory
The former Coty Cosmetics factory stands a little further along on the opposite side of the road. Designed by Wallis, Gilbert and Partners, it was completed in 1932 and until 1979, lipsticks, perfumes and other beauty products were manufactured there. Now home a branch of a private health care company there is a link of sorts with Coty as amongst other things, the Syon Clinic performs cosmetic surgery. 

I love the elegant simplicity of the Coty factory with its almost completely white facade, straight lined crittal windows and just a touch of colour with the green line at the upper level of the facade allowing itself a little upwards flourish at the corners. But the main feature is the entrance with its fins, discs conforming to the rule of three and recessed doorway. Wallis, Gilbert and Partners were hugely successful architects and real leaders in the art deco field. As well as the Coty factory, they also designed Victoria Coach Station, the former Hoover Factory in Perivale, the former Daimler Hire Garage in the West End and the tower of the Alaska Factory in Bermondsey, all of which are still in use albeit not necessarily for the original purpose.

They also have another building on the Great West Road - the former Pyrene Fire Extinguisher Company's factory a little further along. Construction was completed in 1928 and the company took up residence in 1930. Long and rectilinear with a stepped, decorative main tower it has brightly coloured tiling around the main doorway, the patterns of which make reference to ancient Egyptian motifs. Its position on a slope and the outer gates being locked makes it difficult to see the full glory of the main door or indeed to photograph it without standing in the middle of the dual carriageway, which is not recommended. Pyrene became part of the Chubb company in 1971 but have long been gone from here and although the internet has some oblique references to a residential development there was no sign of any activity when I visited. The building is listed with Grade ll status.

Former Coty Cosmetics factory 
Former Coty Cosmetics factory
Former Pyrene Fire Extinguisher Company building
Former Pyrene Fire Extinguisher Company building
Detail, former Pyrene Fire Extinguisher Company building
The fourth and final building is my favourite. Currently occupied by the international marketing company JC Decaux (and also pictured at the top of this post). Built in 1936 and designed by architect F E Simkins, it was sensitively restored in 1997 by Norman Foster. The red metal window frames are a vivid contrast to the plain white facade which leans in to the central clock tower. As with many art deco buildings, this one has a beautiful entrance with its red door frame and white, rounded canopy. Unfortunately works were being carried out to the facade when I visited so it wasn't possible to get unobstructed pictures and additionally the workman was pretending to be shy and kept shouting "no pictures". He should be so lucky.  I am planning to return to look at some of the other remaining deco structures so will try again.

I came away with mixed feelings. Its great that so many of these treasures are still standing but worrying that some of them are empty with no apparent plans. Some have already been lost, including the former Firestone Tyre Factory which was demolished on a Bank Holiday weekend the day before a preservation order was to be served. All that remains of the factory which was yet another Walls and Gilbert project are part of the main gates, pillars and fence. It is to be hoped that positive use can be made of the Golden Mile's vacant deco buildings in order to ensure their future.

Former Curry's building with shy workman
You might also like Sydney Art Deco

You can see more pictures of London Art Deco buildings here

Sunday 12 June 2016

Vigan - part three of a Philippines journey

The drive from Sagada to Vigan, capital of the Ilocos Sur province, took six hours. It began with stunning views of the morning clouds in the valleys which soon gave way to one small town after another, each with their church, shops, petrol station and food stalls. Less than one hour from Vigan we caught a glimpse of the body of water known locally as the West Philippines Sea with its many small boats and people fishing from the rocks and the shore.

Shortly before reaching our destination, we stopped for lunch at a branch of Max's restaurant, a Philippine chain founded in 1945 and famous for its chicken. Greeted at the door by the customary "welcome sir, welcome ma'am" - my guide was able to arrange for a vegetarian dish for me as well as some of the sweet potato chips that I had by this point become addicted to. However, the highlight of my lunch was a huge bowl of Halo Halo - a dessert made of shaved ice, various types of sweet bean and fruit. I've eaten another version of this in Singapore where its known as Ais Kacang, but I'd never had one where the main colour is purple!

Vigan was hot and humid after the temporary respite of Sagada's micro-climate but this did not prevent me from strolling along Calle Crisologo - something I had been looking forward to since arriving in the Philippines. It is the city's main street and unlike Manila, many of the older buildings survived the Second World War. This elegant street has many cafes, restaurants, souvenir shops and other enterprises linked to tourism and which provide employment for local people. Many of the buildings have been carefully restored with the encouragement and advice of the local authority and it is possible to admire the many capiz-shell windows and ventanillas (ventilated walls) that add character to the street. The architecture is an eclectic mix of Spanish colonial style with some Chinese and local influences such as the steep staircases and decorative features. The atmosphere has been enhanced by the banning of motor vehicles from the street with horse drawn carriages being the only form of transport allowed.

There is much to see in Calle Crisologo and it is easy to miss some of the detail if you don't look carefully. I especially liked the uniform detailing under the eaves of the buildings, a surprisingly ornate staircase in a lobby behind one of the street vendors, the collection of old doors, pots and metal items outside an artisan's studio and a dark wood antique cabinet in the little cafe I chose for just one more coffee before bed.

There are several ancestral homes in and around Vigan, some of which are open to the public. The Syquia Mansion on Quirino Boulevard was built in 1830 and was the home of Dona Alicia Syquia, wife of former president Elpidio Quirino. The Syquia family emigrated from China to the Philippines in order to trade with the Spanish. The mansion has been beautifully restored and contains many original furnishings, some of them in Chinese style reflecting the family's origins. The layout of the mansion reflects the class divisions of the colonial period with separate rooms set aside for receiving different classes of guest and a volada, a covered external corridor running the length of the building allowing servants to pass through without coming into contact with the family. The Syquias owned a number of properties in Vigan including one on Calle Crisologo which still bears the family name although the building was sold some years ago.

I also visited the Quema house in Encarnacion Street. Built in the 1820's for merchant Don Mariano Quema, the house retains most of the original furnishings and decor, some of which has been restored. The living quarters are at the upper levels whilst the ground floor was originally for storage and for garaging horse-drawn carriages.

The furnishings reflect a range of styles including Viennese chairs and Chinese cupboards whilst the walls and ceilings are decorative, some with images of vine-like plants. The furnishings include a wooden chair with elongated arms that doubled as a lounging seat and a birthing chair. Like the Syquia mansion, the Quema house has a volada and ventanillas allowing air to circulate in the living quarters. It also has something quite ingenious. One of the wooden floor panels in the room above the old coach entrance hides a small window giving residents a peep at would be callers and allowing them to decide whether or not they are "at home". If the caller is to be admitted, a cord behind the curtains opens the outer door to grant them entry. Cheaper than CCTV and it doesn't break down! Visits to the house are by appointment only. The latest edition of the Rough Guide to the Philippines gives 075 632 0480 as the number to call to arrange a visit.

A new museum and documentation centre will open in Vigan before the end of 2016. I was privileged to get a preview of the almost complete building which covers the city's history with a particular focus on its built heritage for which it enjoys UNESCO World Heritage status as the best preserved Spanish colonial city in Asia. A range of artifacts reflecting the various ethnic communities in the area are exhibited and,there are some excellent interactive features that will be the envy of many museums both in the Philippines and further afield. I particularly enjoyed designing my own ancestral home using one of these features!

The museum consists of a series of buildings linked by bridges and will include a cafe and gift shop once works are completed. The project has for the most part been funded by the city government who understand the importance of the built heritage and how it contributes to the economy, well-being and cultural life of the city today. The museum will include a store where local people can purchase old doors, window-frames, furnishings and other items to assist them in restoring their homes. These have been purchased from neighbouring towns and cities where old buildings have been demolished or "modernised". These rescued items will only be available to Vigan residents. In addition to this, a book has been published showing how to undertake sensitive and authentic restoration and giving useful local contacts. It is this kind of forward and practical thinking that has led to Vigan being recognised by UNESCO for Best Practice in World Heritage Site Management.

The new museum is bound to become one of the most visited sites in Ilocos Sur, if not in the whole of the Philippines but in the meantime, the old Ilocos Sur Jail houses a museum and gallery that is well worth a visit. As well as some excellent temporary exhibitions, the museum is home to the 14 paintings that record the Basi Revolt of 1807 when the Ilocos region rose up against the Spanish in response to their banning of the production and sale of the local wine - Basi. The revolt was cruelly put down and ended with the execution of many of the rebels in the neighbouring town of San Vicente.

In order to remind the locals of the consequences of rebellion, the Spanish ordered one Esteban Pichay Villanueva to paint scenes from the uprising. Not an artist by profession he completed a series of 14 paintings in 1821 in the naif style and in reference to the 14 stations of the cross displayed in Catholic churches. Despite not being an artist, Villanueva made use of some interesting techniques - showing the Spanish as being much larger than the Filipinos to show their dominance but also showing  Halley's Comet a sign understood by local people to mean that a revolution would finally come. I have not been able to find a book or postcard reproductions showing the pictures but they can be viewed online through any search engine. The museum is interesting for having been the birthplace of President Elpidio Quirino whose father worked at the prison and about whom there is a permanent exhibition. Visitors are greeted by an old sign warning inmates that the prison is a drug free zone!

Saint Paul's Metropolitan Cathedral stands in Vigan's main square together with the city's various administrative buildings. Built between 1790 and 1800 in Baroque style, the cathedral has thick ramparts and a belfry built 15 metres away from the main building in the hope that future earthquakes would not take both structures. The cathedral exhibits a number of Chinese influences including the dogs on the facade over the main entrance and the brass communion handrails. The plaza opposite the cathedral is a popular gathering place, particularly in the evenings when people come to see performances by the musical fountain. Its also where I enjoyed a very tasty avocado ice cream.

The plaza features in the story of how Vigan avoided destruction at the end of the Second World War when many other cities in the Philippines were heavily damaged by US bombing and burning by the retreating Japanese. A similar fate would have befallen Vigan but for the intervention of affairs of the heart and for a German parish priest. Captain Fujiro Takahashi went to Father Joseph Klemcamf asking him to intercede with the Americans and to persuade them not to bomb the city. His reason for this was that he had married a local woman - Adela Tolentino - and had two children with her. Unable to take them with him on the retreat from Vigan he wanted to assure their safety. Klemcamf agreed to stave off the Americans and apparently did so by telling them the Japanese had already left and by displaying a huge American flag on the ground of the central plaza as proof. In return for this, the Japanese ignored their order to set fire to the city and Vigan was saved.

Two nights in Vigan passed quickly and it was soon time to head for Laoag from where I was to fly back to Manila to prepare for my journey home. However, there was still one more treat to come. The Saint Augustine Church in Paoay is part of yet another UNESCO World Heritage site, one of four baroque churches listed in 1993. Saint Augustine's is particularly interesting for the 24 huge side buttresses that support the structure and give it something of a Javanese appearance. Adjacent to the church there is an earthquake ruined convent now used as a venue for cultural activity and which had some interesting installations at the time of my visit, whilst beyond the convent there are some well preserved ancestral homes.

After Paoay I enjoyed a vegetarian empanada at Lanie's Empanada in Batac which like Paoay is in the Ilocos Norte province, next door to Ilocos Sur. I had enjoyed several culinary delights in Vigan and the surrounding area including a vegetarian version of monggo which consisted of mung beans, bitter melon, tomatoes and onions - the regular version includes air dried pork. I also liked a dish made from eggplant (aubergine), egg, tomatoes and onion which has the slightly risqué name of poqui-poqui and an early morning drink of taho, made from tofu, custard and brown sugar and sold by street vendors.

My time in the Philippines was over. all too soon I was struck by the diversity of the landscape from the teeming, hot and humid city of Manila to the peace and quiet of Sagada with its temperate climate. I loved those greenest of green rice terraces in Banaue and could have spent days just looking at the landscape and I was charmed by the rich history and elegance of Vigan. I would love to be able to stroll along Crisologo just now and stop for a coffee and a pastry. I have some great memories of riding though Intramuros on a bamboo bicycle, riding on the roof of a jeepney in Banaue, trying my hand at both weaving and ceramics in Vigan and getting the chance to see some of Manila's best art deco buildings from the inside.

But most of all, I was touched by the kindness and generosity of the people and their enthusiasm for their culture and traditions. It was my first visit to these islands but it certainly won't be my last - I am already hatching plans for a return.

You might also like Looking for old Manila and North to Banaue and Sagada.

You can see more pictures from the Philippines here.

Thanks to Undiscovered Destinations who planned and organized my trip and to Intas for providing such excellent local expertise, help and above all fun!

Tuesday 7 June 2016

North to Banaue and Sagada - part two of a Philippines journey.

I recently visited the Philippines for the first time. After spending a few days in the sweltering heat of Manila, I left the city behind for a six day road trip that would eventually take me, my stoical driver and my excellent guide to Vigan, about 400 kilometers to the north and with many memorable sites and experiences in-between.

One hour outside the city we came to our first stop, Bacolor, a small town in Pampanga Province. Like many other settlements in the region it was affected by the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo which caused the deaths of more than 800 people, the destruction of 200,000 acres of farmland and 800,000 head of livestock.  But this was not the end of it and Pinatubo continued to produce mudflows, known as lahars, for a number of years, causing further damage and necessitating evacuations. One such lahar, on 3rd September 1995 buried San Guillermo Parish Church to half of its 12 metres height. 

Two earlier editions of the church had been lost to earthquakes and Bacolor's residents, not wishing to lose this one decided to dig the church out themselves. With the benefit of very few tools, the citizens removed sufficient mud to enable the church to be brought back into use, albeit  with a much lower roof than previously. It is possible to see the extent of the damage from what at first glance appear to be odd, half moon windows at floor height but which are in fact the upper parts of the windows, the rest now submerged. The back of the church shows similar evidence. 

The determination of the local people to save their beloved church may seem surprising to those of us who live in the west, but the Philippines is a devout Christian country with more than 80% of the people identifying as Catholic and many attending church. Evidence of this devotion can be seen everywhere - the little shrines to Mary in the towns and cities, signs on the ubiquitous "jeepneys" calling on divine protection and even the OMG garage we passed on the road to Vigan.

I came across another Filipino cultural more at Bacolor. After paying a few pesos to use the facilities, the smiley lady looking after the church asked me if I was traveling alone. In a way I was and so to her obvious surprise I said yes. My guide explained that it is unusual for Filipinos to do things by themselves rather than with family, friends or some other group. I had already noticed that few people sit alone in cafes here and on my arrival in Manila there were large groups of friends and relatives to meet returning Filipinos.

Leaving Bacolor, we continued on what was to be a ten and a half hour journey to Banaue. I passed the time watching the clouds floating between the distant Cordillera mountains and enjoying the lush green agricultural landscape. We passed through countless small towns, all of them with a church and most of them with fast food places, street food stalls and shops selling motor parts. Sometimes we would see a little, brightly painted school, some displaying large banners proclaiming themselves to be "child friendly". The other traffic provided diversions too with huge trucks carrying goods of all kinds, fleets of jeepneys and the smaller motor tricycles with a small carriage containing a person or persons, their shopping and on one occasion...a pig. The pig looked comfortable if bemused although I doubt he enjoyed the end of his journey.

And then we were in Banaue. It was dark and raining when we arrived and so there was little to do other than to check in to the Banaue Hotel, a large rambling hostel like establishment, in need of some tlc but with a certain charm. Waking early the next morning I opened my curtains to find that I had a stunning view of some of the famous rice terraces, several of which form part of a UNESCO World Heritage site listing. This pleasant surprise was just a precursor to a day full of wonderful views, some of which I enjoyed from the roof of a jeepney, having been persuaded that I wouldn't fall off and that it was the best place from which to enjoy the terraces. Thank you Joanna!

Built over 2000 years ago by the local Ifugao people, the mud walled terraces are an amazing feat of engineering, maximising the use of land for rice cultivation, whilst the waters are also used to breed telapia and to grow various vegetables for local consumption. It is possible to hike through the terraces, climbing to the top from where there are breathtaking views of the valleys below, some with small villages at the centre, but all with those clear lines defining each level. At the time of my visit the fields were coloured the greenest of greens. If visiting in December, before the rice is grown, I am told that the hillside resembles an enormous mirror with the clear water on the terraces reflecting the surrounding peaks. I'd like to see that.

The terraces attract many different birds and insects. I was fascinated by the bright orange bodied dragonflies that resemble chillies. A brown/ deep red dragonfly had four almost square propeller-like wings and a further species had big, deep green eyes and a black body. I have always liked dragonflies, possibly due to their being used as a motif in art nouveau design but I learned in Banaue that they can eat between 50 and 100 mosquitos each per day which greatly increased my admiration for them. I don't like mosquitos but they like me. A lot. Avocados and mangos grow around the terraces, and some of them had dropped their fruit to be enjoyed by the bird population which includes a species with a bright orange fan tail. We also spotted a pair of kingfishers perched on a telegraph wire when we left Banaue. Although beautiful, birds are unwelcome guests in the rice fields and various methods are used to scare them away. These include scarecrows, and my favourite, a rope with a series of cans attach to it, pulled from time to time by someone sitting patiently in the fields. The noise of the cans scares the birds away. At least for a while.

The Ifugao produce many skilled craftspeople. Its possible to see and purchase their work including wood carvings and textiles directly from the craftsmen and women in the villages, at the large shop in the Banaue Hotel (where you can find items from various parts of the country) and even from tiny kiosks set into the hillside that also sell drinks and snacks to tourists visiting the terraces. I enjoyed a big mug of local coffee brewed at a stall operated by three children helping their mum during the school holidays.

After a day spent on the terraces and another night's sleep at the hotel, we were back on the road to travel the 190 kilometres or so to Sagada in the Mountain province. Before reaching our destination we made  a short stop in Bontoc which has a good, small museum exhibiting clothes, crafts and other cultural items of the Kalinga and Ifugao people. The items are well displayed together with photographs of the indigenous peoples of the Cordilleras, taken by Eduardo Masferre from the 1930's onwards. The pictures show the day to day life of his subjects as well as important events including marriages, festivals and traditions. The photos are not voyeuristic and his affection for the people, their life and traditions is obvious. There is an excellent book of his work - People of the Philippine Cordillera, photographs 1934-56. It is extremely rare and extremely expensive. If you have £799 to spare you can buy a copy here from Amazon. At least you can at time of writing. I've seen the book and covet a copy. The museum is set in a pleasant garden with some reconstructed traditional homes that can also be visited. The Masferre family maintain a hotel, restaurant and a very good food shop in Sagada - the Masferre Inn where I would spend the next two nights.

Sagada has a number of attractions, including caves, waterfalls and the Echo Valley hanging coffins. The local Igorot people have intricate and detailed traditions relating to burial. People buried in the traditional way were not placed in the ground but in caves or on cliff sides. The place of being laid to rest depended on the way they had died, their status and the services they had rendered to their communities and families. Women who had died in childbirth were buried in a particular place, murder victims in another, with separate locations for other causes of death. The most prominent people and those who had significantly helped their communities could be buried on the cliff side. Most people today are buried in the ground but there have been some cliff side burials within the last few years. Visitors can get very close to the coffins in the caves, some of which are extremely ornate with lizards and other creatures carved on to them. The more ornate the coffin, the greater the status of the deceased.

Local guides can take visitors deep into the caves around the town. This is not for the feint hearted as it includes passing through some very tight and claustrophobic spaces and getting very wet. I passed on this and chose instead to hike to the small, Bokong waterfall where a group of young people were trying to outdo each other with their dives from the top of the fall before coming up gasping for breath from the chilly water.

Sagada has something of a micro-climate and with day time temperatures in the low 20's it was a welcome break from the heat and humidity of Manila and Banaue. This may be why the area is host to some amazingly coloured butterflies including pale yellow and black and white patterned species. Cevat coffee beans grow here too - the ones that need to pass through a cat's system before being processed for drinking. Regular readers will know of my coffee addiction, but I resisted the temptation on this occasion. On the subject of coffee (and food), Sagada can boast a vegetarian restaurant - Gaia - a rare find in the Philippines. All of the products are organic, locally grown and somewhat intriguingly, the menu refers to an organic pig that gets to eat the leftovers! Food is served on a terrace and I thoroughly enjoyed my sweet potato soup, vegetable chips, sesame cookies and coffee whilst admiring the view. Gaia also has a small shop where you can buy organic items, souvenirs and even borrow a book from a small library.

The Ganduyan Museum is another Sagada highlight. The sculptures, jewelry and artifacts were collected by the now sadly deceased Christina Aben. In addition to preserving the cultural heritage of the local people, she was a fine artist and craftswomen. Her son now runs the museum and gives a thoroughly engaging explanation of the collection interspersed with incisive humour. The museum does not receive government support so if you go please make a donation to help ensure this important work continues. Part of the museum presentation was about wedding traditions. We were told that when there is a wedding in this part of the Philippines, everyone is invited. We saw evidence of this the next day when Sagada came to a standstill as a wedding being celebrated in the centre of town attracted hundreds of guests, many of whom could be seen coming away with little parcels of food - another example of the shared, group approach to life in the Philippines.

Sagada was the penultimate stop on my road trip. As we began the long drive north to Vigan, turning a corner with a steep drop, we were met with views of the morning clouds filling the valley below and the dark mountains going on and on in the background. Beautiful, heartbreakingly so.

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More pictures of the Philippines here.