Saturday, 15 October 2016

Tel-Aviv, more beautiful Bauhaus

Tel-Aviv's Bauhaus architecture secured UNESCO World Heritage Status in 2003. There are more than 4,000 such buildings  in the city, which means that there are always more to discover and enjoy simply by walking the streets. The World Heritage Status stimulated great interest in the built heritage and although a significant number of the Bauhaus structures remain in poor condition, many have been restored or are under restoration.

107 Dizengoff, Yehuda Stempler, 1935.
Recently I came across two apartment buildings that I hadn't noticed before, one of which has been lovingly restored as well as a stunningly restored and extended building on Dizengoff Street. The Yehuda Hetzroni House at 107 Dizengoff was built in 1935 to the design of architect Yehuda Stempler. The original plans show two residential floors above commercial space on the ground floor. The facade is asymmetrical with long balconies that curve around the corner, parallel to the gorgeous curved glazing of the commercial space. A stairwell divides the front and rear wings and features a vertical "thermometer" window. The restoration has recently been completed, using original materials. Two more floors have been added, together with a partial floor and pergola - reflecting the Bauhaus philosophy of shared, social space on the roof. Nitza Szmuk Architects carried out the work and have been responsible for much of the restoration carried out in the city. Original architect Stempler, went on to design other Bauhaus style buildings in Tel-Aviv, including the Reis House in Meggido Street, completed in 1936.

On my most recent visit to the city, I rented a room in an Eclectic style house in Bialik Street. This might just be my favourite street in my favourite city due to its collection of Bauhaus and Eclectic style architecture. I especially love the Bialik House (which you can read about here) and the Reuven Rubin Museum which I visited many times. Walking through some of the side streets between Bialik and Dizengoff, I stumbled on two great Bauhaus buildings that I hadn't come across on my many visits to the city.

Zvi Brook is a small, quiet street accessed from Bialik by a flight of stairs between the City Museum and the Felicia Blumenthal Centre. The Ephraim Stroud House at number one Zvi Brook was built in 1934 and designed by architect Victor Jachun. As with the Hetzroni House, it was listed in a detailed presentation plan drawn up in 2008 as one of the requirements of the UNESCO listing. Located just behind the original City Hall, part of the building was once used as a kindergarten for the children of local authority employees working at the City Hall. The Municipal Waterworks Office was also located here.

The Stroud House is a very large, asymmetric structure with horizontal cantilevered balconies and a striking thermometer window, made of glass and steel and running the full height of the stairwell.The "thermometer" joins the two different wings of the house and sits above the main entrance. The corner lot on which the unit is situated includes a communal garden. Restoration work was undertaken in 2013 by architect Nira Reichman and the Yuvalim group. This practice has also undertaken a number of conservation projects in Tel-Aviv including buildings in the both the Bauhaus and Eclectic styles.

1 Zvi Brook, Victor Jachun, 1934.

Trumpeldor Street is famous for its cemetery where many famous people were laid to rest including former Prime Minister Moshe Sharett, national poet Chaim Nachman Bialik, Tel-Aviv's first Mayor - Meir Dizengoff and singer Shoshana Damari as well as many writers, artists and other notable people. There are also several Bauhaus buildings in this street, including number 39. The Greenberg House was designed by architect Shlomo Ehrlich and completed in 1935. 

It is an extremely elegant building, constructed on a platform, with a layered, recessed facade, roof terrace and supremely stylish main entrance accessed by a flight of steps and sheltered by a curved canopy. The canopy is echoed at the summit of the apartment block with a similar feature at roof level. There are typical Bauhaus balconies to the rear of the building but these are obscured by mature trees. Ehrlich was one of the many Jewish architects that fled Germany in the 1930's and had been associated with the Bauhaus School before leaving for Tel-Aviv.

As already noted, there are approximately 4,000 Bauhaus structures in Tel-Aviv. This includes residential, commercial and community buildings and they can be found in almost every neighbourhood. Strolling is the best way to discover this most eclectic of cities and I look forward to making more discoveries when I next visit - in the near future!

39 Trumpeldor, Shlomo Ehrlich, 1935.

Saturday, 1 October 2016

The Elite Factory, Ramat Gan - modernism and chocolate!

Elite is Israel's leading company for the production of coffee and confectionary. Now part of the world wide Strauss group, Elite had very humble origins when Eliyahu Fromchenko began experimenting with making chocolate in his own kitchen in Russia in 1918.  Eliyahu was destined for great things in the confectionary trade and moved to Riga in Latvia where together with his brother, Leonid, he acquired the Laima company in 1925. By 1933, Latvia had become distinctly uncomfortable for Jews and the Fromchenkos sold the business to move to Eretz Israel. Laima survived the Second World War and the Soviet period and continues to be an iconic brand today. 

In 1933 Eliyahu commissioned the building of a confectionary factory in Ramat Gan, close to Tel Aviv, establishing the Elite brand in partnership with the Mosevic and Kopilov families. The first batch of confectionary was produced in time for Pesach (Passover) in 1934 with Shokolad Para (cow chocolate named for the picture of a cow on the packaging) being the most popular product.

By 1938 Elite had began manufacturing chocolate for the British Army and following the success of the "chocolate from the Holy Land" branding, commenced exporting to Jewish communities overseas. The company continued to prosper and opened a second factory in Nazareth in 1956. Confectionary production ceased at the Ramat Gan factory some time ago but local people still recall the smell of chocolate emanating from this much loved building in the town centre. Popular singer, Yehonatan Geffen even wrote a song in praise of the aroma of chocolate coming from the factory! In recent years the building has been home to the Shankar College of Design but at the time of my visit it looked abandoned with no sign of recent activity. 

The factory was designed in the modernist style by architect Shlomo Ponrov. Ponrov had studied at Harvard University in the United States and eventually became the City Engineer of Jerusalem following Israel's independence in 1948. He was also responsible for designing the Yerhovsky House at 17 Bialik Street in Tel Aviv. The factory is an extremely handsome structure, in relatively good condition with some of the nautical references so typical of larger modernist structures in Israeli buildings of the 1930's. The entrance is particularly elegant with the curved "shelf" style canopy over the short flight of steps and the glazed, squared off corner. 

The site has been the focus of a number of abortive schemes to build a large tower block, including one, now dropped, that involved a certain Donald Trump. Each of the schemes proposed so far have involved total demolition of the factory. I have been unable to find any recent information on the current position. It is to be hoped that this building which played such an important role in the development of Ramat Gan and of the Israeli catering industry can be saved. Eliyahu Fromchenko had a bit of a knack for survival. He wisely left Europe in 1933 and there is at least one report of him being rescued from execution during the Petlyra pogroms in Kharkov during the Russian Civil War. Let's hope his factory has similar survival skills.

Tuesday, 20 September 2016

Picture Post 57 - Heichal Yehuda Synagogue, Tel-Aviv

Menachem ben Sarum is a side street not far from Tel-Aviv's city hall. It is largely residential with blocks of flats, a large car park...and a stunning brilliant white building - the Heichal Yehuda Synagogue. Sitting rather incongruously behind the car park, the rear of the synagogue resembles a large sea-shell, glistening in the strong sunshine and contrasting with the bright blue Tel Aviv sky.

Built in 1980, the synagogue was intended as a memorial for the Jewish community of Thessaloniki in Greece, which was almost entirely destroyed during the Holocaust. Much of the funding came from the well know Recanati family who originated from Thessaloniki and the building is sometimes referred to as the Recanati synagogue. It is also called the seashell synagogue due to its shape and the fact that it was inspired by the shells on the beach in Greece.

The facade is highly decorative with three main segments each baring motifs connected to the Jewish holidays and designed by Israeli artist Joseph Chaaltiel. The summit of each section is curved and hooded, resembling a tallit. The main doors are particularly impressive and carry discs displaying the names of each of the twelve tribes of Israel. Architects Yitzchak Toledo and Aharon Russo designed the building to hold 600 people - 400 in the men's section and 200 in the women's gallery. The shell design enables all members of the congregation to see and hear from wherever they are seated.

I like the idea of this soft, delicate looking structure being designed in the shape of a sea shell and the link back to Thessaloniki.When I was a child, we were encouraged to put shells to our ears in order to "hear the sea" in the same way that the Heichal Yehuda gives congregants an echo from Gree

Friday, 16 September 2016

Cinema Orot - Brutalist architecture in Beer Sheva

Beer Sheva is the largest city in southern Israel and is surrounded by the vast Negev desert. From the late 1950's onwards a number of new buildings were constructed here in the style that came to be known as Brutalist. The style has been the subject of much criticism over the years and not only in Israel. However, in many places a re-assessment is taking place with some of these buildings now receiving recognition and in some places receiving protected status, particularly in the UK.

My favourite Beer Sheva brutalist building is the now abandoned Orot (lights) Cinema at the corner of Hashalom and Hamaapilim streets in the city's Gimmel quarter. Designed by Yaacov Rechter under the supervision of Zeev Rechter, the cinema received planning permission in the late 1950's and was completed in 1960. Originally known as Orot HaNegev (lights of the Negev), the 800 seat cinema was commissioned by local businessmen, brothers Hillel and Shimon Felchinski.The first film to be shown was Bridge Over The River Kwai" in January 1960. Like many cinemas, the Orot struggled in the 1970's and 1980's and finally closed in December 1989 having been open slightly less than thirty years.

Following its closure, the cinema was purchased by a developer who planned to deliver a residential project but a prolonged dispute with the local authority led to the abandonment of this plan and the cinema now stands neglected, surrounded by dust and thistles and acting as a home to pigeons. Despite this, it remains a striking building with its accordion shaped exterior which strengths the structure and negates the need for internal pillars. The play of light and shadows on the external folds changes throughout the day adding character to the structure. It is possible to peep in through the broken windows to see the folds repeated on the interior wall. Somewhat surprisingly many of the wooden seats remain in place. The decorative metal front of the former ticket office also just about survives and again repeats the folds of the main structure.

The Orot may be in poor condition but there is some hope for the future of Beer Sheva's Brutalist architecture. Local architects Omri Oz-Amar and Hadas Shadar have been campaigning for UNESCO recognition of Beer Sheva as a World Heritage Site, representing the Brutalist architectural movement. Shadar is also the author of a book Beer Sheva Brutalist and Neo-Brutalist Architecture available at several bookshops including the Bauhaus Center in Tel-Aviv.

Zeev Rechter had previously worked in the Bauhaus style and was responsible for a number of buildings including the beautiful Soskin house in Tel Aviv.

Monday, 8 August 2016

Le Corbusier's Villa Savoye

Le Corbusier's Villa Savoye is located in Poissy, 30 kilometres from Paris. Commissioned by the Savoye family as a weekend retreat, the villa was built between 1928 and 1931 and was known as "Les Heures Claires". Sometimes described as a box in the air, it was the culmination of Le Corbusier's Five Points of New Architecture, all of which are demonstrated in the villa's design.

The architect set out his manifesto in 1927 as a guide to the architectural principles of the modernist movement. Villa Savoye demonstrates these points in the following ways. The pilotis, or concrete columns support the structure and remove the need for supporting walls as well as enabling internal open planning and a free-floating facade. The horizontal windows create light and airy interiors and the flat roof acts as an accessible terrace and garden.

The Savoyes were a wealthy family who had made their fortune through selling insurance policies to industry but who due to the caution of Monsieur Pierre Savoye, did not own their own home, preferring to rent an apartment in Paris. His wife Eugenie had a desire for a weekend home, a desire to which Pierre eventually capitulated and in 1928 the couple contacted and commissioned Le Corbusier to design a villa for them. Eugenie had specific and detailed requirements including central heating, a wine cellar, space for three cars, rooms for guests and for two maids as well as accommodation for the gardner and other staff. Amongst other things she also specified a large bedroom with bathroom and toilet, a boudoir and a box room for tools!

A price was agreed and work commenced but as is often the case, the actual costs was significantly in excess of the original figure, causing tension between the Savoyes and the architect. This led to Le Corbusier feeling pressured to accept the lowest tenders with a resultant impact on quality. The situation was made worse by the economic crisis of 1929 which also impacted on the business interests of the family. Pierre Savoye engaged in detailed correspondence with Le Corbusier complaining about water ingress as well as problems with the boiler and humidity. To add to his unhappiness the final bill was double that of the original estimate. A common problem even today.

The difficult history of the villa continued throughout the Second World War when it was first requisitioned by the occupying Germans and then by the Allies following liberation. It had suffered extensive damage during the war and in 1958, the Poissy municipality purchased proposing to demolish the villa and establish a high school. Advised of this by the Savoyes, Le Corbusier organised stiff resistance to these proposals and was able to not only recruit leading French architects and personalities to the cause but was also able to provoke protest from overseas.

The protest resulted in the villa being passed to the State in 1962. Extensive and lengthy renovation commenced the following year and continued until as recently as 1997. It now has Historic Monument status and protection for future generations. 

Trees screen the villa from the main road and visitors approach along a narrow path leading to the open space around the structure. Walking around the exterior, it is possible to see the curved wall on the roof, views through the loggia to the upper level and the contrasting green concrete and glazed elements of the ground floor. My favourite internal features include the stunning spiral staircase, fabulous tiled day-bed and adjacent blue tiled bath and the angled glazing along the side of the ramp leading to the roof garden. Visitors are welcome during advertised opening hours and internal photography is permitted. 

Monday, 25 July 2016

Poplar Baths - an art deco icon reopens

Public baths began appearing in cities in the UK during the nineteenth century. The stimulus for this was primarily a piece of legislation, the Baths and Wash House Act of 1840. It was enacted in response to a growing awareness of the importance of hygiene and exercise in promoting good health and the fact that working class housing generally lacked facilities to wash oneself or ones clothes. Several public baths constructed during the Victorian period still stand today although many of them are now disused or in poor condition. On a more positive note, several local authorities have begun to restore these architectural treasures and to bring them back into use. One such example is Poplar Baths in East London.

Elegant art deco staircase
The original Poplar Baths were constructed in 1852 and included first and second class pools, slipper baths (bath tubs) and vapor baths with separate provision for men and women. The building also boasted a  public laundry with washing, drying and ironing facilities. This must have seemed very luxurious and the height of modernity to Poplar dwellers during the 1850's many of whom were amongst the poorest Londoners.

During the 1920's and 1930's another round of building public bath houses and swimming pools took place again motivated by an awareness of the need to improve the health of Britain's poor. A number of iconic projects took place during this time including the Peckham Experiment on the opposite side of the Thames to Poplar. Poplar was again to benefit and the baths were rebuilt under the direction of Borough Engineer, Harley Heckford. Working with his Chief Assistant, H.R.W. Stanton, Heckford was to design the iconic building that dominates a particular stretch of East India Dock Road in today's London Borough of Tower Hamlets. 

The new baths were built in the art deco style from 1932 to 1934. The building included two pools, the larger of which would be covered over in the winter and used as a dance hall and cinema and for boxing and wrestling competitions. When covered, the hall could seat 1,400 people. The smaller pool remained open for swimming throughout the winter and as previously, health and hygiene facilities were provided. It is interesting that the local authority saw the equal importance of physical and cultural activity in improving the wellbeing of local people.

Lobby pillar
Staircase tiles and patterned floor
Sports hall
This part of London was heavily bombed during the Second World War and although not destroyed, the baths sustained damage that led to several years of closure before re-opening in 1947. Use appears to have reached a peak between 1954 and 1959 when over 200,000 visits to the facilities were made each year before a long decline set in, leading to closure in 1988. Apart from temporary use by a training organisation and occasional one off events, the baths stood unused for 28 years. English Heritage listed the building in 2001, awarding it Grade ll status but also placing it on the buildings at risk register.

Campaigners worked for many years to get the baths reopened and in 201 an announcement was made that the building would be brought back into use as part of a wider £multi-million development which would include a sympathetic extension to the building. Work on the restoration commenced in 2014 and was very recently completed.

Never having been inside, I was fortunate to get a tour of the building a few days ago. The brown and red brick exterior wrapped around a reinforced concrete structure hides some stunning internal art deco features. For me at least, the undisputed stars of the show are the staircases to the left and right of the main entrance. Fully tiled to shoulder height in blue, grey and black, and boasting steel balustrades, these staircases would not be out of place in a 1930's New York hotel or a Parisian department store.  The granolithic tiled floor is covered with a range of geometric patterns that begin on the lobby floor and continue to the top of the staircases. There is also one remaining deco style pillar in the lobby, examples of which can often be found in well preserved 1930's cinemas.

Decorative recessing in the sports hall
Former projection room
The former main pool area is now set out as a sports hall and although the original spectator seating has gone, the decorative stage remains with the crest of the old authority above it. The "whalebone" concrete hyperbolic ribs still stand and support the glazed roof that was revolutionary in the 1930s, admitting natural light to a public baths. In the new part of the building which houses two pools, the former "Turkish" bath has been re-created with a smaller pool and beautiful tiled, hollowed out pillars that house functioning showers. 

There are many other little features scattered through the building that show just how particular Harley Heckford and his team were back in the 1930's. These include crittal windows looking from the former office suite out over the sports hall and the openings through which films were screened from the projection room have been retained and the surrounds cleaned up. Some of the doors have beautifully angled handles, whilst gentle recessing has been used throughout as a decorative element. I also liked the not yet restored brown tiles at the upper levels, particularly where they curve at the doorways. It is clear that although Poplar was (and is) one of London's poorest neighborhoods, the architect and the authority believed that only the best design and facilities should be provided. not a bad philosophy.

The restored and extended baths reopen on Monday 25th August. Harley Heckford would be proud.

Surround of former stage
"Look up" - one of the two main stairwells.
Reconstructed "Turkish" bath
Sports hall
The new main pool

Thursday, 14 July 2016

Picture Post 56 - The Majestic Theatre Singapore

Singapore has a reputation for being ultra modern with cutting edge architecture and skyscrapers dominating the cityscape. Whilst this reputation is much deserved, there is also another side to Singapore and it is easy to find examples of earlier architectural splendour. Not least amongst these is the former Majestic Theatre on Eu Tong Sen Street in the Chinatown district. 

Once Chinatown's most significant building, the Majestic still has an imposing presence on this busy street. The exterior is an interesting mix of Chinese and art deco features. Brightly coloured ceramic tiles frame the central element of the facade which is decorated with mosaic representations of figures from Chinese operas, Chinese characters, dragons and flowers. The metalwork on the glazing is also interesting and is similar in design to traditional Chinese screens.

The theatre was commissioned and paid for by Eu Tong Sen, a philanthropist and owner of rubber plantations and tin mines. Originally designed as an opera house, the theatre was a gift for one of his wives, a Cantonese opera singer. Not only did he pay for the theatre, he also formed an opera troupe for her and bought the rest of the street, naming it after himself. Sen engaged Swan and McLaren, the architects responsible for the Raffles Hotel to design his theatre. Work on the 1,194 seat theatre was completed in 1928 when the building opened under the name Tien Yien Moh Toi, or the Tin Yin Dance Stage. Cantonese operas were performed there until 1938 when the building was converted to a cinema and renamed the Queen's. This lasted until 1942 when the Japanese occupiers seized the building, renamed it the Tia Hwa Opera House and used it to screen propaganda films. 

In 1945, the Majestic Film Company took over the building, gave it its name and commenced screening blockbuster Cantonese films and although ownership was to change again in later years, it continued to operate as a cinema until closure in 1998. Today the Majestic is used as a retail market but the grandeur of the facade makes it easy to imagine how it must have been for opera fans arriving at the theatre in the 1930's.