Thursday, 9 April 2015

Lisbon art deco - three cinemas, a church and some communists!

I planned to visit Lisbon in 2001 but for various reasons wasn't able to go. It took me until this year to get there and now I can't believe I waited so long. The city has an easy, relaxed atmosphere as well as some of  Europe's most beautiful art deco and modernist buildings. This came as a surprise as Lisbon does not immediately spring to mind when thinking about art deco in Europe. The Portuguese version of this architectural style is one of Europe's best kept architectural secrets.

Eden Theatre, Praca dos Restauradores
As with many cities, Lisbon boast a number of cinemas in the style, some of which now serve other functions whilst retaining some of their original features. The most prominent of the city's art deco cinemas is the former Eden Theatre on Praca dos Restauradores. Designed by Cassiano Branco and Carlo Florencio Dias, it opened in 1931. Branco is a name to which we will return. The cinema had a large, double tiered hall which, sadly, was demolished in 2001 when the building was converted into an apartment hotel. It had ceased to operate as a cinema in 1989 but had a brief moment of glory in 1991 when part of Wim Wenders' Until the End of The World was filmed there. 

There have also been some changes to the exterior as two enormous film poster boards were removed to open up the front and to reveal an atrium at the upper levels. The ground floor originally housed shops with stairways leading to the first floor where the auditorium was located but now appears to be empty. Despite this, the Eden still cuts an impressive figure at the very heart of Lisbon. 

Eden Theatre, Praca dos Restauradores
Teatro Cinearte at Largo dos Santos 2 operated as a cinema from 1938 to 1981 when it closed. Nine years later, the building reopened under the management of Shack - a theatre company. Shack added a second room in 1993, so as with the Eden, the interior is not as it was originally designed. 

Standing in a quiet square and opposite a small park, it is a striking example of Portuguese art deco with its portholes, glass bricked stairwell, stylised lettering, ocean liner curves and of course, its green facade. Located between the popular waterfront area of Belem and Baixa in the historical centre, it is a little off the beaten track for tourists but is well worth a bit of a walk from one or the other or if its too hot for that, a cheap taxi ride from the centre.

The Cinearte was designed by Lisbon born architect Raul Rodrigues Lima who was responsible for a number of cinemas in Portugal including the art deco influenced cinemas, Cinema Messias in Aveiro and Cinema Micaelense in San Miguel in the Azores. He later went on to work in the more classical influenced "Portuguese Smooth" style that became popular in the 1950's.

Teatro Cinearte, Largo dos Santos
Teatro Cinearte, Largo dos Santos
Teatro Cinearte, Largo dos Santos
Espaco Espelho d'Agua
One of the best things about traveling is the thrill of stumbling upon places you didn't know about. I had this experience in Belem after visiting some of the better known tourist sites when strolling along the waterfront I came across the absolutely stunning Espaco Espelho d'Agua, a huge modernist single storey structure built in 1940 for the Portuguese World Exhibition. Designed by architect Antonio Lino, the Espaco is today an arts centre with a cafe and restaurant set in what appears to be a former dock. 

The white exterior glimmered in the bright Portuguese sunshine and of course I couldn't resist sampling the cafe's coffee and ice cream whilst admiring the building's many deco and modernist features. The clean white exterior is decorated with fins, portholes, speed lines and protruding pillars whilst a minimalist approach has been taken to decorating the interior - with the exception of more portholes around the light fittings! It was not hard to imagine the Espaco being frequented by fleeing artists, musicians, writers and other refugees from central Europe during the 1940's, together with the more fashionable elements of Portuguese society. A real find.

Espaco Espelho d'Agua
Espaco Espelho d'Agua
My next stop is back in the centre of the city on the Avenida Liberdade, perhaps the glitziest street in Lisbon and home to Prada, Armani, Gucci and Louis Vuitton. It is also home to an art deco masterpiece,  the Hotel Vitoria, at number 170. This marble clad beauty completed in 1936 is the work of Cassiano Branco who we met earlier. It has quite a history. Originally built as an apartment block, it was expanded and transformed into a hotel during the Second World War, when it was used as a base by spies of Nazi Germany. Due to Portugal's official neutrality during the war, spies from both sides frequented the city, setting up home and base in various hotels and spending time listening in to conversations in cafes and hotels, shadowing some of the refugees mentioned earlier and in some cases working as double agents. There is an excellent book on this period, Lisbon, War in the Shadows in the City of Light 1939-45  by Neil Lochery, which is well worth a read.

Hotel Vitoria, Avendida de Liberdade
Back to Hotel Vitoria. Its architectural features are as interesting as its history. Most impressive is its column of circular balconies which reaches to all six levels, the uppermost sheltered by a disc resembling an umbrella or canopy. The roof terrace, sadly not open to the public has a pergola which may seem a little bourgeois to the current occupants - the Communist Party of Portugal! The impressive balconies are in stark contrast to the adjoining much flatter facade topped by a concave box. Hotel Vitoria is one of the architect's greatest achievements and it is surprising that he is little known outside of Portugal.

Branco had an interesting career. Born in Lisbon in 1897, he attended the School of Fine Arts but became disenchanted and left after two years to undertake a more technical and industrial education as well as helping his father to run a small factory and working in a bank. During the 1920's he visited Amsterdam and Brussels and attended the 1925 International Exhibition of Modern Decorative and Industrial Arts in Paris. Perhaps inspired by the new styles seen on his travels, he returned to the Lisbon School of Fine Arts and completed his architectural training in 1927.

Interested in politics, he was an outspoken critic of the Portuguese dictator, Antonio de Oliveira Salazar, which resulted in him being excluded from large scale official commissions. However, this does not seem to have affected his ability to work too much as both the Eden and Hotel Vitoria demonstrate. He also designed buildings in Porto, Cascais and Costa da Caparica.

Hotel Vitoria, Avendida de Liberdade
Hotel Vitoria, Avendida de Liberdade
Branco was also responsible for some residential blocks, including the huge apartment building at Rua Nova de sao Mamedy 3-7, built in 1937 with shops on the ground floor and  flats above. The block features some great balconies with circular ends on each side of the facade and a flatter central panel with a single fin. Still in use as a residential block, the ground floor shops have now been replaced by a car park. The street has a number of other interesting buildings from this period, not exactly modernist or deco but with a look none the less.

Apartment building, Rua de sao Mamedy
The subtitle of this post refers to three cinemas and the third of them is the former Condes Cinema at Avenida de Liberdade 2. Completed a little later than its near neighbours, it opened in 1951 and operated until the 1990's when it closed. it then stood empty for a while before (sadly) the interior was almost entirely ripped out and Lisbon's branch of the Hard Rock Cafe was opened in 2003. Built on the site of an earlier theatre, it was designed by architect Raul Tojal in a simpler style than the cinemas of Branco and Rodrigues Lima.  It has retained its exterior features, which have been carefully restored, including the mythical figures on the front curve. Tojal was also responsible for the interior of Cafe Nicola, opened in 1929 in Rossio Square and still serving coffee today. Cafe Nicola is one of many cafes allegedly frequented by the greta Portuguese writer Fernando Pessoa.

Condes Cinema, Avenida de Liberdade
So that's the cinemas and the communists dealt with, but what of the church? Lisbon has a single modernist church, Nossa Senhora do Rosario de Fatima, completed in 1938 and designed by Porfiro Pardal Monteiro. it towers over the lower level buildings in one of the side streets off Avenida Marques de Tomar, not far from the world famous Gulbenkian Museum. Built in white painted cement, it is all angles and lines, relieved only by Francisoc Franco's relief figures over the main entrance. The interior is quiet and peaceful and decorated by stained glass panels, the work of artist Sobral de Almada Negreiros. 

Nossa Senhora de Rosario de Fatima
Nossa Senhora de Rosario de Fatima
Nossa Senhora de Rosario de Fatima
Lisbon is home to many art deco and modernist buildings and its hard to visit them all in just a few days, so as ever, I will need to visit again! Portugal's second city, Porto also has architectural riches in these styles so I feel a wider tour of Portugal coming on...

5 comments:

  1. Great stuff Adrian - another Deco city added to our list.

    cheers Robin & Robyn

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  2. Wow!!!!! Love your blog, THANK YOU

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  4. Hi Adrian, great post! Next time you come to Lisbon, check out the church of São João de Deus (Praça de Londres), by architect António Lino. Even though it is not as art deco as Our Lady of Fátima's church, it still retains some of the modernist features you looked at, particularly the frescoes behind the main altar. Another building worth visit, of a much later finishing by architect Pardal Monteiro is the National Library, in Campo Grande. Despite having been built in the 60s, it also still retains some modernist features. The centre of modernism in Lisbon, however, is Alameda Dom Afonso Henriques with a fountain to the East and "Técnico" and the Statistics Institute to the West.

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    1. Hello Diogo. Thanks very much for the feedback and suggestions. I hope to return to Lisbon at some point so will visit the buildings you suggest. Best wishes! Adrian.

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